The Tainung F1 papaya fruits are a hybrid developed for the first time in Taiwan. The plants have three types: females, males and hermaphrodites (Gil and Miranda, 2005). In Colombia, it is commercialized as the F1 commercial hybrid seed. The plants have heights of 2 to 2.8 m, a factor that predetermines crop productivity. The fruits have an elongated shape when they come from hermaphroditic and an elliptical shape when they come from female plants (Alonso et al., 2009). The measurement of elastic properties in fruits and vegetables can be estimated with a simple penetration test coupled to a texturometer, obtaining force versus distance curves that are needed for the calculation of mechanical parameters such as force or penetration effort. Uniaxial compression tests have also been widely used, which provide stress versus strain data and the maximum breaking force for calculating the modulus of deformability and the rupture energy (Alvis et al., 2009).
One of the important measurements in the textural characterization of fruits is firmness, which measures the resistance to mechanical damage during harvest and transport (Ciro et al., 2005; Rangel-Montes de Oca et al., 2018; Sanchez et al., 2020). The sum of the elastic and plastic deformations of a certain point in the force-deformation curve is used to calculate the unit deformation in the expression of the module. Firmness is the consistency of fruits and is used to determine the optimal harvest timing (Barreiro and Ruiz, 1996). Each material is characterized by a deformation curve in response to variable forces applied to its surface (Zapata et al., 2010).
Stress, defined as a force on a unit of area and generally expressed in Pa (N m-2), can be produced by tension, compression or cuts, while deformation, a dimensionless measurement, changes the original length of the material (Ramírez, 2006; Alvis et al., 2009). The software Autodesk Inventor Professional 15.0 Technology ANSYS submits models of mechanical parameters to studies with computer-aided engineering, when performing a stress analysis (Rojas et al., 2013). This software is parametric type and creates models of solids supported in the constructive geometry (Bonifácio et al., 2019; Zulkifli et al., 2020).
Clinical success and longevity of dental implant-retained restorations can be achieved by biomechanically controlled occlusion. The occlusal forces affect the bone surrounding an implant-retained restoration. Mechanical stress can have both positive and negative consequences for bone tissue and thereby also for maintaining osseointegration of an oral implant-retained restoration.6
It is clinically difficult to quantify the magnitude and direction of naturally occurring occlusal forces. There are no clinical indices available to quantify these occlusal forces and their impact on prosthesis and oral implants, as they are available for plaque accumulation and peri-implant mucositis. This makes it very difficult to correlate the clinical signs and symptoms of occlusal overloading, radiographic signs of marginal bone loss, and implant failure.7 The occlusal forces may exceed the mechanical or biological load-bearing capacity of osseointegrated implants or prosthesis, causing either mechanical complications such as screw loosening or fracture, prosthesis or implant fracture, or failure of osseointegration, eventually leading to compromised implant longevity.6 1e1e36bf2d